Same-sex marriage rights are supported by 71% of Americans (via this Gallup poll), but recent changes in the Supreme Court`s interpretation of the Fourteenth Amendment have made LGBTQ+ couples and their allies concerned about the future of marriage equality. The availability of legally recognized same-sex marriage in the United States has grown from one state in 2004 to fifty states in 2015 through various court decisions, state legislation, and direct referendums. The states each have separate marriage laws that must conform to U.S. Supreme Court decisions recognizing marriage as a fundamental right guaranteed by both the Due Process Clause and the Equality Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, as first established in 1967 in the landmark civil rights case Loving v. Virginia. In 2009, two economists at Emory University linked the adoption of same-sex marriage bans in the United States to an increase in HIV/AIDS infection rates.   The study linked the adoption of the ban on same-sex marriage in one state to an increase in the annual rate of HIV in that state by about 4 cases per 100,000 people. Obama said the decision will «strengthen all of our communities» by granting dignity and equal status to all same-sex couples and their families. «The ancient origins of marriage confirm its centrality, but it was not isolated from developments in law and society,» Kennedy wrote. Her opinion describes the history of how ideas of marriage have evolved as well as the changing roles and legal status of women. Massachusetts became the first state to legalize same-sex marriage in 2003, when the state`s Supreme Court ruled that its constitution granted that right, according to Pew Research.
Friday`s ruling «confirms what millions of people in this country already know in their hearts: Our love is equal,» said lead plaintiff Jim Obergefell, who challenged Ohio`s ban on same-sex marriage. Several psychological studies have shown that increased exposure to negative conversations, media messages, and negative peer-to-peer reactions about same-sex marriage creates a harmful environment for LGBT people that can affect their health and well-being, especially among younger members.    Congress codified same-sex marriage after the Supreme Court ruled earlier this year than decades of precedents for abortion rights in Roe v. Wade – when Justice Clarence Thomas suggested that the court could also consider the right to same-sex marriage in Obergefell v. Hodges. In a speech at the White House, President Obama praised the Supreme Court`s decision, saying it came «like lightning» after a series of battles over same-sex marriage. Public opinion on same-sex marriage in the United States has changed rapidly since Americans were occasionally surveyed on the subject in the 1980s and more regularly in the 1990s. Domestic support has steadily increased, reaching 40% for the first time in 2004, 40% for the first time in 2004, 50% for the first time, 60% in 2015 and 70% for the first time in 2021.  Generational differences are an important factor in this change.  In his disagreement, Roberts wrote that the Court took an «extraordinary step» when it decided not to allow states to decide the issue themselves, stating that the Constitution did not define marriage. Some states, such as New Jersey and New Hampshire, first allowed same-sex couples to enter into civil partnerships, or partnership status not recognized by the federal government, before finally legalizing the marriage. The NAACP, the leading African-American civil rights organization, has pledged to support gay rights and same-sex marriage, stating that it «supports marriage equality consistent with equal protection under the Fourteenth Amendment Act of the United States Constitution,» and has declared same-sex marriage a civil right.
 Just years after President Obama declared DOMA unconstitutional and ordered the Justice Department to stop defending it in court, the Supreme Court promoted marriage equality through landmark decisions in 2013. Hollingsworth v. Perry concluded that Provo. 8 had no legal authority, while United States v. Windsor declared DOMA unconstitutional – paving the way for full equality. The premiere of the 22nd season of PBS`s animated series Arthur featured teacher Mr. Ratburn`s marriage to his male partner.  Alabama Public Television refused to air the episode.  In response, legislators in the U.S. House of Representatives and Senate are taking steps to enshrine same-sex marriage rights at the federal level (Respect for Marriage Act).
Marriage equality is a global problem. According to the Human Rights Campaign, there are currently 31 countries where same-sex marriage is legal. Of these countries, 22 have legalized same-sex marriage through laws, seven (including the United States) have legalized same-sex marriage through court decisions, and two have enacted laws by judicial warrant. The time for full marriage equality finally came on June 26, 2015 with the Supreme Court`s decision in Obergefell v. Hodges. In a landmark 5-4 decision, marriage equality became the law of the land, granting same-sex couples the right to full and equal recognition before the law in all 50 states. This meant that same-sex couples living in conservative states like Texas or Florida (where same-sex marriage was illegal) had to travel to states like New Mexico or Iowa (where same-sex marriage was legal) to get married. Jessica enjoys immersing herself in the history and magic of ritual, exploring the connections between people and places, and telling true stories of love and commitment.
She is an advocate for marriage equality and individuality. When she`s not writing or illustrating for AMM, she enjoys easy wanderings, fantasy novels, comics, and travel. According to a study conducted by the Democratic Legislative Campaign Committee earlier this year, 32 states have banned same-sex marriage in their constitutions and/or laws, and about 205 million Americans live in places where the Supreme Court could immediately make same-sex marriage illegal. About 7,400 companies offered benefits to same-sex couples starting in 2008. In states that recognize same-sex marriage, same-sex couples cannot continue to receive the same benefits as if they marry.  Only 18% of private employers provided health care to domestic partners.  Friday`s decision adds a new definition to an issue that has remained controversial, even as a growing number of Americans say they support equal marriage rights for same-sex couples. A recent Gallup poll found that 60 percent of Americans — an all-time high — support extending the same rights and privileges to same-sex marriage as traditional marriages. The justices were asked to decide whether the 14th Amendment required states to (a) allow same-sex marriages and (b) recognize unions entered into in other states. A 2019 study found an increase in employment among same-sex couples after same-sex marriage was legalized. The author of the study provided additional evidence that this change in employment was caused by a decrease in discrimination.  Legal issues related to same-sex marriage in the United States are determined by the country`s federal system of government, in which a person`s status, including marital status, is largely determined by individual states.
Prior to 1996, the federal government did not define marriage; Any marriage recognized by a State was recognized, even if that marriage was not recognized by one or more States, as was the case until 1967 with interracial marriage, which some States prohibited by law. Efforts to legalize same-sex marriage began to emerge across the country in the 1990s, posing challenges at the national and state levels. Registered partnerships for same-sex couples existed in many states, but created a separate but equal standard.